Tools

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The nail is a humble object, but it's wide use was first perfected by the Romans. A Roman nail has a square cross section and typically a large head. Nails were made using a nailing iron, a simple tool used in combination with an anvil and hammer. Many Roman nails are quite long, as after it was driven through the wood, it was bent over and the point was driven back into the wood, creating a staple and thus a very tight bond. This technique may still be seen on Medieval (church) doors, for instance.

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The nailing iron was a tool used to make nails. Found with other smithing tools in a hoard in Austria, it has two tapered, square holes in different sizes, which allows the hot nail to be slipped down till it catches where it is thickest, providing a surface on which to flatten the head. The tapered hole allows easier removal of the finished nail.

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A set of carpenters tools, consisting of an auger (drillbit), an adze, and two shaping axes, which can dubble as hamers. Planes, chisels and saws were also part of his toolkit. These tools were made for a demonstration of Roman woodworking. With the auger holes could be gouged out to fit wooden pins into beams to hold a wooden construction together. 

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These odd objects were used to make nets. Netting needles have been found in many sizes and made from a range of different materials, these are of course made of iron, but bronze, wood and even bone are known. The cord to make the net was wound onto the needle through both eyes, so it acted as a spool. The eyes were wider for tying larger meshed nets.

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An unusual tool is the wax scraper. It was used to smoothen the surface of new wax tablets or could be used to refurbish older ones that had their wax lost through prolonged use. Crafted from iron, some were rather plain, while others had inlays of metals like copper or silver for decoration.